[Guide to this chapter]
Through learning, we should correctly understand the connotation of the party system, and on the basis of a careful comparison between the capitalist party system and the socialist party system, we can deepen our understanding of the multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, so as to strengthen our communist belief.
[Key points of this chapter]
The political party system refers to a country that is regulated by law or through long-term political competition, or it can be the institutional regulation and operating mode of the division of power and status of various political parties that are actually manifested in political life under the combined action of the two.
The political party system of a capitalist country refers to a political system in which the bourgeois party represents the bourgeoisie in controlling state power, controlling the country’s political life, and exercising bourgeois rule. The two-party system and the multi-party system are the two main forms of the party system in capitalist countries.
The political party system of a socialist country refers to the political system in which the working class party represents the working class and working people to lead the state power and political life of the country. The multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the only political party system suitable for China. The multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of my country is a feature of our country’s political system, and it is also a major advantage.
- The connotation of the party system
As mentioned earlier, in today’s world, the establishment and activities of political parties have become a universal political phenomenon. Therefore, most countries implement a specific political party system. The party system is an inevitable product of the development of party politics to a certain stage. In the modern sense, political parties almost without exception carry out all their activities within the framework of their country’s party system. The party system has become an important part of the political system of modern countries.
The so-called political party system refers to a country that is regulated by law or through long-term political competition, or it can be the institutional regulation and operating mode of the division of power and status of various political parties in political life under the combined action of the two. It reflects the overall system of the ability and degree of different political parties in mastering, participating in state power or intervening in politics. It mainly includes the influence of various political parties on political life and the resulting relationship between various political parties and state power, the relationship between various political parties, and the activities, methods, rules and procedures of various political parties, and so on.
To accurately grasp and understand the connotation of the party system, we need to grasp the following points:
First of all, it must be recognized that the formation of a country’s political party system is closely related to the country’s historical development. The differences in development paths, development models and levels of development in different countries will inevitably affect the basic composition of the country’s political party system. Significant or various specific differences in the party system between socialist countries and capitalist countries, developing and developed countries, often originate from this.
Secondly, it must be clear that a country’s political party system has a strong consistency with that country’s state system and political system. The choice of a country’s state system and political system fundamentally determines the country’s political party system arrangements and the division of powers. The different party systems between bourgeois and proletarian parties, and even between bourgeois parties or between proletarian parties, are closely related to the different choices of the state system and political system of the country.
Thirdly, when analyzing the essence of the party system, we must realize that, fundamentally speaking, the party system, as a country’s institutional regulations on party leadership, participation in state power, and methods and procedures for intervening in politics, is for the ruling class to achieve One of several national political systems implemented by its long-term rule. This is determined by the nature of the party (class nature).
Finally, we must grasp an important feature of the political party system, that is, it can be clearly stipulated by written laws and regulations, or it can be gradually formed in long-term political life and recognized by people and voluntarily or compelled to follow in practice. For example, my country’s political party system was written into the preamble of the constitution in March 1993, and it has been confirmed by the fundamental law of the country. The political party systems of many capitalist countries often have not obtained clear and specific legal confirmation. It is just that in the long-term political competition and political struggle, different parties have in fact possessed their own differences in the political life of the country. Status and influence.
On the basis of accurately grasping and comprehensively understanding the connotation of the political party system, we can proceed from the nature of the party to correctly view the scientific nature of dividing the major parties in the world into the capitalist party system and the socialist party system in general. And rationality; based on the actual number of political parties in power in a country, the political party system can be specifically divided into four manifestations: one-party system, two-party system, multi-party system, and multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party.
- The political party system of capitalist countries
The so-called party system in a capitalist country refers to a political system in which the bourgeois party represents the bourgeoisie in controlling state power, controlling the country’s political life, and exercising bourgeois rule.
The two-party system that originated in Britain and the multi-party system that originated in France are the two main forms of party systems in capitalist countries. The one-party system mainly appeared in fascist countries and some nationalist countries represented by African countries.
- Two party system
The two-party system refers to a political party system in which two evenly matched parties in a capitalist country compete with each other and take turns to take power. Usually, in regular elections, the two parties will compete fiercely, and the party that controls the majority of seats in the parliament or wins the presidency will form a cabinet and exercise state power. This party is also called the ruling party; The party that loses in the election is called the opposition party, the opposition party, or the non-ruling party.
Of course, in a two-party country, there are generally not only two parties. In addition to the two major parties, there are also parties with weak political power. It’s just that these small parties are weak in power and can’t play a decisive role in the country’s political life, so the regime always alternates between the two big parties.
At present, the countries that implement the two-party system in the world mainly include the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Britain, which first produced bourgeois political parties, is also the country of origin and typical significance of the two-party system of capitalist countries.
In the 1830s, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party began to take turns in power, and the two-party system was officially established in Britain. In the 1920s, the Liberal Party was replaced by the Labour Party after its split. Since then, the Labour Party and the Conservative Party have been in power in turn.
The British political party system is integrated with the parliamentary system. Nominally, the British government is a constitutional monarchy, and members of the House of Lords are also hereditary or appointed by the king, which seems to have nothing to do with the political party system. But in fact, the United Kingdom implements a parliamentary cabinet system. Members of the House of Commons are elected. The two parties compete for seats in the House of Commons.
The party with the majority of seats forms a cabinet to represent the bourgeoisie in exercising state power and controlling the executive power. It controls the parliament and holds the legislative power. The party is the ruling party; the party that wins a minority of seats in the parliamentary elections can supervise the government or contain the government’s activities. These parties are the opposition parties.
The two-party system implemented in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other countries is basically close to the British model, except that the opposition has less responsibility and power than the British opposition party.
Another example of the two-party system is the United States. The Democratic Party of the United States was established in 1828 and the Republican Party was established in 1854. Since then, the two parties have coexisted and have been in power in turn for more than 150 years.
The political party system in the United States is integrated with the presidential system. Since the US government is a presidential republic, the US political party system is a typical two-party system under the separation of powers. The two-party competition is mainly manifested in the presidential election. Which party’s candidate wins the election to become the president, and which party is the ruling party. Because the president is both the head of state and the head of government, and he holds the real power of administration. And the party that loses the election becomes the opposition party
. The U.S. Congress is also formed through elections, but the number of seats in Congress by the ruling and opposition parties is not necessarily related to whether they are in power. The ruling party is not necessarily the majority party in Congress, and the leader of the ruling party is not necessarily the leader of the majority party in Congress. While the ruling party holds the real power of the government, it does not necessarily have the real power of the Congress.
Therefore, in essence, the two-party system is a political party system in which the two main bourgeois parties in capitalist countries manipulate parliamentary elections and presidential elections, take turns in power, and confront each other.
- Multi-party system
The so-called multi-party system is a political party system in which multiple parties stand side by side in a capitalist country, and each political party can independently or jointly with other parties to campaign and govern in accordance with the law.
At present, most capitalist countries practice a multi-party system. The common characteristics of these countries are the fact that there are many parties, divisions and integrations, factions within the party, and political disagreement, resulting in frequent government changes and political instability.
There are many reasons for the multi-party system. Generally speaking, in a capitalist country with a multi-party system, the state-class relationship is complex. Many political forces with a certain strength have formed many parties. The parties are evenly matched, and no one can maintain a long-term advantage alone. . For any political party to govern, it can only be achieved by establishing a party alliance or by accidentally winning a relative majority in the election.
The multi-party system originated in France, with France and Italy being the most typical.
France formed a multi-party situation during the bourgeois revolution in the 18th century. Among the many political factions participating in the elections to the National Assembly, since no faction can obtain a majority in the parliament, in order to achieve the purpose of coming to power, these political parties have formed alliances to participate in the election. In 1875, France formally established a multi-party political party system. Since then, Italy, the former Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Denmark and other countries have also implemented a multi-party system.
Of course, in capitalist countries, the multi-party system is divided into two types, namely, the multi-party system of joint governance and the multi-party system of “one party dominance”. But no matter which form of multi-party system, in essence, it is a kind of political party in which multi-party coexistence in capitalist countries leads to alliances between political parties to manipulate parliamentary elections or presidential elections, and then to achieve rotation in power. system.
- One-party system
One-party system means that in a capitalist country, there is only one legal party that occupies a dominant position in the country’s political life, and is solely responsible for it. Even if other parties exist, the prohibition of national laws makes it impossible for them to compete with the ruling party. The political party system competing for power.
The one-party dictatorship of a fascist party is an inevitable result of a high degree of economic monopoly and a high degree of political concentration during the development of capitalism to imperialism. When ordinary democratic means could no longer maintain the rule of the bourgeoisie, a one-party dictatorship of fascist parties emerged. The fascist one-party system is based on the personal dictatorship of the party leader. Its most obvious feature is the implementation of terrorist dictatorship and violent rule, which completely abandoned even one form of bourgeois democracy. After the Second World War, this party system suffered a devastating blow, but the breeding ground for fascism still exists, and the activities of fascist parties have not disappeared.
After achieving national independence and national liberation, many African countries and a few Asian and Latin American countries have adopted a one-party system with a party in power for a long time. However, since the mid-1980s, with changes in the international situation, these countries have set off a wave of “democratization” that imitated the Western multi-party system, and generated intense social and political movements.
It should be noted that the political party system of any form of capitalist country is based on and serves capitalist private ownership. As the famous “Like Controversy” cartoon reveals, the parties compete fiercely during the election, and you compete; after the election, the ruling party and the opposition party confront each other and constantly attack each other, which is just an illusion. They always hope to achieve the effect of adjusting the internal contradictions of the bourgeoisie, creating a democratic illusion and deceiving the masses of the people by taking turns in power. They are also always in order to protect the interests of the entire bourgeoisie, implement bourgeois dictatorship, and continue to maintain bourgeois rule. The ultimate goal. This is the basic position we must have when looking at the party system of capitalist countries.
- Political Party System in Socialist Countries
The political party system of a socialist country refers to the political system in which the working class party represents the working class and working people to lead the state power and political life of the country.
The party system of socialist countries can be basically divided into two types: the one-party system of the Communist Party in socialist countries and the multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party.
Some socialist countries are determined by the actual conditions of their own countries. There is only the Communist Party as the only political party, so their political system adopts the Communist one-party system. However, it must be pointed out that the one-party system in these socialist countries is a socialist political party system, which insists on the leadership of the Communist Party. This is determined by the nature of the socialist country, the socialist economic foundation, and the nature and tasks of the Communist Party. The one-party system of a socialist country is only the same in form as the one-party system of the bourgeoisie, but there is a fundamental difference in essence.
The socialist countries represented by China practice a multi-party cooperation system led by the Communist Party, which is a new type of political party system in socialist countries. In this system, the Communist Party is the ruling party, and the democratic party is the participating party, which jointly manages the country; in the state organs, representatives of democratic parties occupy certain positions; in terms of party relations, multi-party cooperation in socialist countries It is a cooperative relationship established on the basis of the unanimous fundamental interests of the broad masses of people. They jointly serve the cause of socialism, negotiate and exchange opinions on major national policies and other major issues, and exercise mutual supervision.
Whether it is the one-party system of the Communist Party or the multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party, the leadership of the Communist Party is the core of the socialist political system. The main content of party politics in socialist countries is that the Communist Party, which represents the fundamental interests of the proletariat and the working people, leads the country and society through three channels: politics, ideology, and organization. Political leadership is the core, ideological leadership is the soul, and organizational leadership is the guarantee. The leadership of the Communist Party composed of these three relationships is the essence of party politics in socialist countries.
- Multi-party cooperation system led by the Communist Party of China
The party system of multi-party cooperation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the party system of contemporary China. It is a basic political system gradually formed and developed on the basis of long-term cooperation between the Chinese Communist Party and the democratic parties under the guidance of the basic principles of Marxism.
The multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the only political party system suitable for China. The two-party and multi-party system of the bourgeoisie cannot be practiced in China, nor can the one-party system of a socialist country be practiced. The multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of my country is a feature of our country’s political system, and it is also a major advantage.
The multi-party cooperation system implemented in my country is centered on the leadership of the Communist Party of China, which is the ruling party. In multi-party cooperation, the leadership of the Communist Party must be upheld. The leadership of the party is the fundamental prerequisite and fundamental guarantee for multi-party cooperation. The leadership of the Communist Party of China was formed in the long-term revolutionary struggle and cannot be replaced by any force. The leadership and ruling position of the Chinese Communist Party in multi-party cooperation is a choice of history and a choice of the people.
There are eight democratic parties in our country. They are the Chinese Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee, China Democratic League, China Democratic National Construction Association, China Democracy Promotion Association, China Peasants and Workers Democratic Party, China Zhigong Party, Jiu San Society and Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League. Except for the earlier establishment of the Zhi Gong Party and the Peasant-Workers Democratic Party, most of the democratic parties were established during the War of Resistance Against Japan and the War of Liberation. The social foundation of their establishment was mainly the national bourgeoisie, the upper petty bourgeoisie and their knowledge.
Intellectuals and other patriotic democrats, as well as a certain number of revolutionary intellectuals and a small number of Communists, served as the backbone of the leadership. From the very beginning, the democratic parties were not purely bourgeois parties, but parties with the nature of a united front and a class alliance. Their political programs were mainly anti-imperialist patriotism and demand for democracy. This is basically consistent with the Communist Party’s program of national revolution.
After the founding of New China, under the leadership of the Communist Party, the democratic parties have embarked on a new historical path. In keeping with the development of the times, they have successively announced that the “Political Program” adopted by the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” and the general program of the Constitution of the People’s Political Consultative Conference shall be their own political programs, and they have adhered to the political line of serving socialism.
As the core force of the Chinese people’s leadership, the Communist Party of China not only upholds its leadership over the country, but also respects history and reality. From the very beginning, it has maintained and developed cooperative relations with various democratic parties and united them to participate in the people’s democratic government and participate. Negotiations and decisions on major issues in the country’s political life, manage the country together, and build the country together. With the establishment of the socialist system in China, domestic class relations have changed, and the democratic parties and the Communist Party have become more and more consistent in adhering to the socialist road.
In “On the Ten Major Relations,” Mao Zedong proposed for the first time that the Communist Party and the democratic parties will implement the policy of “long-term coexistence and mutual supervision”. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee further pointed out that all democratic parties have become a political alliance of part of the socialist laborers and part of the patriots who support socialism. They are all socialist parties under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.
The political power of service. The Twelfth National Congress of the Communist Party of China further developed the eight-character policy of “long-term coexistence and mutual supervision” into a sixteen-character policy of “long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, mutual understanding, and shared honor and disgrace. The 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly listed the multi-party cooperation system and political consultation system under the leadership of the Communist Party as a socialist political system with Chinese characteristics alongside the people’s congress system.
On December 30, 1989, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China reiterated in the “Opinions on Upholding and Improving the System of Multi-party Cooperation and Political Consultation under the Leadership of the Communist Party of China” that the Communist Party of China is the core of the leadership of the socialist cause, the ruling party, and the democratic parties. It is a close friend party that cooperates fully with the Chinese Communist Party and is committed to the cause of socialism, and is a participating party. The multi-party cooperation system led by the Communist Party of China has thus entered a new stage of development. The Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee further pointed out that the important role of the united front in deliberative democracy should be brought into play.
Improve political consultations between the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties, and earnestly listen to the opinions of the democratic parties and people without party affiliation. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposes plans based on its annual work priorities, and conducts consultations through consultation meetings, heart-to-heart meetings, and symposiums. Improve the system for the central committees of democratic parties to directly submit suggestions to the CPC Central Committee.
It can be seen that the multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China is determined by my country’s specific historical and realistic conditions. It is gradually formed and developed on the basis of long-term cooperation in the great practice of China’s revolution, construction, and reform and opening up. What gets up is the result of historical choice and the result of people’s choice.
First of all, the leadership core position of the Communist Party of China was historically formed during the development of the modern Chinese revolutionary movement. It was under the leadership of the Communist Party of China that the Chinese people won the victory of the revolution and chose the socialist road. The Communist Party of China has naturally become the ruling party under the people’s choice.
Secondly, while making contributions to the revolution and construction and becoming an important force in the patriotic united front of our country, the democratic parties also deeply realize that only by uniting around the Communist Party of China and consciously accepting and supporting the leadership of the Communist Party of China can they give full play to The role of itself. Finally, the cooperation between the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties has a common political foundation. The basic propositions of the democratic parties during the democratic revolution are basically consistent with the democratic revolution program of the Communist Party of China.
However, the duality of the Chinese national bourgeoisie, the dispersal of the petty bourgeoisie, and the brutal suppression of the Kuomintang reactionary regime make the democratic parties have to seek the support and cooperation of the Chinese Communist Party, and the Chinese Communist Party also needs to unite them to accomplish common tasks. During the period of socialist construction, the democratic parties have transformed into a political alliance of part of the socialist laborers and part of the patriots who support socialism.
They have a more consistent common foundation with the Communist Party of China in terms of socialism and patriotism. Therefore, the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties unite and cooperate, supervise each other, and work together to build a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, and realize the historical tasks of continuing to advance modernization, complete the reunification of the motherland, maintain world peace and promote common development.
The multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China has the following advantages: First, it is conducive to better uniting the people of the country and mobilizing all positive factors to serve the socialist modernization drive. Second, it is conducive to strengthening the construction of socialist democratic politics, improving the socialist legal system, and consolidating and developing a stable and united political situation. Third, it is conducive to promoting the early completion of the great cause of reunification of the motherland. Fourth, it is conducive to strengthening and improving the leadership of the Communist Party and the self-construction of democratic parties.
In short, the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of my country is a basic political system in our country. This system is the result of the Chinese people’s long-term struggle and the crystallization of the Chinese people’s political wisdom and experience. Therefore, the unswerving adherence to the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the unswerving adherence to and improvement of the People’s Congress system, the multi-party cooperation system and the political consultation system under the leadership of the Communist Party are related to the consolidation of China’s socialist system and all ethnic groups in the country. The fundamental interests of the people are an issue with major political principles, which must be truly achieved and done well, without the slightest ambiguity and wavering.
[Test questions in this chapter]
One, fill in the blanks
- The political party system refers to the institutional regulations and operating modes of a country, either by or through long-term, ___, or under the combined action of the two, which are actually manifested in the political life of various political parties _.
- The political party system of a country has a strong consistency with that of the country’s and __.
- The political party system can be divided into four manifestations: , , _ and _.
- The multi-party system in capitalist countries originated from _, with _ being the most typical.
- The Communist Party of China and the democratic parties implement the policies of _, _, _, and _.
Two, choose to fill in the blanks
- _ originated in Britain and _ originated in France are the two main forms of party systems in capitalist countries.
A. One-party system and multi-party system
B. Two-party multi-party system
C. Multi-party system two-party system
- In the multi-party cooperation system of the Communist Party of China, the Communist Party is and the democratic party is _, which jointly manage the country.
A. Ruling opposition party
B. Ruling opposition party
C. Ruling party
- The cooperation methods of the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties to negotiate and manage state affairs mainly include __ and other forms.
A. The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, a consultation forum convened by the Communist Party of China, to participate in the state power
B. The National People’s Congress and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference to participate in state power
C. The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the National People’s Congress and the Chinese Communist Party convened a consultation forum